However, with an Australian woman, rendered infertile by ovarian cancer treatment, expecting twins after successfully undergoing ovarian tissue transplantation, doctors are expecting that the new technique could revolutionise fertility treatment.
Though the procedure had been carried out previously, this is for the first time that the tissue has been successfully transplanted into the abdomen instead of the ovaries.
Ovarian tissue transplant: How it is done
Healthy ovarian cortical tissue is removed using laparoscopic surgery (keyhole surgery) from the woman about to undergo cancer treatment. The minimally invasive procedure lasts approximately 1 hour and requires general anesthesia.
The ovary`s cortex is cut into tiny 1 millimetre thick strips and then frozen to be used for future transplantation.
Once the patient goes into remission post cancer treatment and plans to have a baby several slices of the previously frozen ovarian tissue can then be thawed and implanted near the fallopian, either orthotopic (on the natural location) or heterotopic (on the abdominal wall).
The cortex tissue strips contain immature follicles, once implanted back into the body start producing hormones and eggs like a normal ovary following which a woman starts to ovulate and can try for pregnancy either naturally or through in vitro fertilisation (IVF) technique.
Cervical cancer in women is decreasing, while uterine and gall bladder cancer is on the rise at least in major metropolitan cities, suggests India’s latest cancer statistics without providing any explanation for the observed trend.
According to the population based cancer registry prepared by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), actual reported cases of cervical cancer declined between 2009 and 2011 in Bangalore, Bhopal, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai. Decline was seen in Assam, Mizoram and Thiruvananthapuram, too. Uterine cancers, are on the rise in Bangalore, Chennai, Delhi and Mumbai in the same period. In Bangalore, the number of cases increased by 7.4 per cent between 1986 and 2009, whereas the rise was 7.3 per cent between 2005 and 2010 in Mumbai, compared to 1.7 per cent increase between 1982 and 2004.
“There is a declining trend in cervical cancer and increase in uterus and gall bladder cancer cases in some cities. We don’t know the reason yet,” said V M Katoch, director-general of ICMR. In the country, breast and cervical cancer remain the two most common cancers in women.
Among men, cancer of the lung, mouth, oesophagus and stomach are common. Cancers of the tongue, rectum, liver, lung, prostate, brain, non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma and a type of leukaemia have shown statistically significant increase.Cancer of the gall bladder in women is increasing in Chennai, Bangalore and Bhopal. In Delhi, the hike is seen in men, whereas in Mumbai, it went up both in men and women. Lung cancer among women, too, had increased in the four metros.
The new statistics come from collation of data from 28 population based cancer registries, covering 7.45 per cent of the population. As many as 250 centres contributed to the database, which was approved by ICMR’s top science advisory panel last week.
This is the third report from the ICMR registry with the addition of new sites.